Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills | Materials Handling



This section applies to establishments where pulp, paper, and paperboard are manufactured and converted. It does not apply to logging and the transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.

Handling and Storage of Pulpwood and Pulp Chips §1910.261(c)(1)–(7)

Handling Pulpwood with Forklift Trucks

Where large forklift trucks or lift trucks with clamjaws are used in the yard, the operator’s enclosed cab shall be provided with an escape hatch, whenever the hydraulic arm blocks escape through the side doors.

Handling Pulpwood with Cranes or Stackers

Where locomotive cranes are used for loading or unloading pulpwood, the pulpwood shall be piled so as to allow a clearance of not less than 24 inches between the pile and the end of the cab of any locomotive crane in use, when the cab is turned in any working position.
The minimum distance of the pulpwood pile from the centerline of a standard-gage track shall be maintained at not less than 81/2 feet.
Logs shall be piled in an orderly and stable manner, with no projection into walkways or roadways.
Railroad cars shall not be spotted on tracks adjacent to the locomotive cranes unless a 24-inch clearance is maintained as required in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of §1910.261.
The handling and storage of other materials shall conform to paragraphs (c)(2) (i) and (ii) of §1910.261 with respect to clearance.
Equipment and practices shall conform to American National Standards B30.2-1943 (reaffirmed 1952) and B30.2.0-1967.
Personal protective equipment for such uses as foot, head, and eye protection shall be required for workers on a job basis.
No person shall be permitted to walk beneath a suspended load, bucket, or hook.

Handling Pulpwood From Ships

Ladders and gangplanks with railings to boat docks shall meet the requirements of American National Standards A12.1-1967, A14.1-1968, A14.2-1956, and A14.3-1956, and shall be securely fastened in place.
The hatch tender shall be required to signal the hoisting engineer to move the load only after the men workinginthe holdare in the clear.
The air in the ship’s hold, tanks, or closed vessels shall be tested for oxygen deficiency and for both toxic and explosive gases and vapors.

Handling Pulpwood From Flatcars and all Other Railway Cars

Railroad flatcars for the conveyance of pulpwood loaded parallel to the length of the car shall be equipped with safety-stake pockets.
Where pulpwood is loaded crosswise on a flatcar sufficient stakes of sizes not smaller than 4 by 4 inches shall be used to prevent the load from shifting.
When it is necessary to cut stakes, those on the unloading side should be partially cut through first, and then the binder wires cut on the opposite side. Wire cutters equipped with long extension handles shall be used. No person shall be permitted along the dumping side of the car after the stakes have been cut.
When steel straps without stakes are used, the steel straps shall be cut from a safe area to prevent employees from being struck by the falling logs.
Flatcars and all other cars shall be chocked during unloading. Where equipment is not provided with hand brakes, rail clamping chocks shall be used.
A derail shall be used to prevent movement of other rail equipment into cars where persons are working.

Handling Pulpwood From Trucks

Cutting of stakes and binder wires shall be done in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of §1910.261.
Where binder chains and steel stakes are used, the binder chains shall be released and the stakes tripped from the opposite side of the load spillage.
Where binder chains and crane slings are used, the crane slings shall be attached and taut before the binder chains are released. The hooker shall see that the helper is clear before signaling for the movement of the load.

Handling Pulp Chips From Railway Cars

All cars shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
Personal protective equipment for such uses as foot, head, and eye protection shall be provided, and employees shall wear the equipment when working in the woodyard. Ear protection shall be provided when the noise level may be harmful.

Handling Pulp Chips From Trucks and Trailers

All trucks and trailers shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
Personal protective equipment shall be in accordance with paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of §1910.261.

Handling and Storage of Raw Materials Other than Pulpwood or Pulp Chips §1910.261(d)(1)–(4)

Personal Protective Equipment

Whenever possible, all dust, fumes, and gases incident to handling materials shall be controlled at the source, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2-1960. Where control at the source is not possible, respirators with goggles or protective masks shall be provided, and employees shall wear them when handling alum, clay, soda, ash, lime, bleach powder, sulfur, chlorine, and similar materials, and when opening rag bales.
When handling liquid acid or alkali, workmen shall be provided with approved eye and face protection and protective clothing, in accordance with American National Standard Z87.1-1968.

Clearance

When materials are being piled inside a building and upon platforms, an aisle clearance at least 3 feet greater than the widest truck in use shall be provided.
Baled paper and rags stored inside a building shall not be piled closer than 18 inches to walls, partitions, or sprinkler heads.

Piling and Unpiling Pulp

Piles of wet lap pulp (unless palletized) shall be stepped back one-half the width of the sheet for each 8 feet of pile height. Sheets of pulp shall be interlapped to make the pile secure. Pulp shall not be piled over pipelines to jeopardize pipes, or so as to cause overloading of floors, or to within 18 inches below sprinkler heads.
Piles of pulp shall not be undermined when being unpiled.
Floor capacities shall be clearly marked on all floors.
Where rolls are pyramided two or more high, chocks shall be installed between each roll on the floor and at every row. Where pulp and paper rolls are stored on smooth floors in processing areas, rubber chocks with wooden core shall be used.
When rolls are decked two or more high, the bottom rolls shall be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.

Materials Handling §1910.261(m)(1)–(5)

Hand Trucks

No person shall be allowed to ride on a powered hand truck unless it is designed by the manufacturer to be ridden on. A limit switch shall be on operating handle — 30 degrees each way from a 45-degree angle up and down.

Power Trucks

Power trucks shall comply with American National Standard B56.1-1969. Adequate ventilation shall be provided and the trucks properly maintained, so that dangerous concentrations of carbon monoxide cannot be generated, especially in warehouses or other isolated areas of a plant.

Cartons

The carton-stitching machine shall be guarded to prevent the operator from coming in contact with the stitching head.
Banders and helpers shall wear eye protection equipment in accordance with §1910.261(b)(2).

Unloading Cars or Trucks

Where steel bands or wires are used in boxcars or trucks, all loaders and helpers shall wear eye protection in accordance with §1910.261(b)(2).
The construction and use of bridge or dock plates shall conform to the requirements of American National Standard B56.1-1969.
Flag signals, derails, or other protective devices shall be used to protect men during switching operations. The blue flag policy shall be invoked according to §1910.261(c)(9)(i).

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