This section applies to establishments where pulp, paper, and paperboard are manufactured and converted. It does not apply to logging and the transportation of logs to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
Where large forklift trucks or lift trucks with clamjaws are used in the yard, the operator’s enclosed cab shall be provided with an escape hatch, whenever the hydraulic arm blocks escape through the side doors.
Where locomotive cranes are used for loading or unloading pulpwood, the pulpwood shall be piled so as to allow a clearance of not less than 24 inches between the pile and the end of the cab of any locomotive crane in use, when the cab is turned in any working position.
The minimum distance of the pulpwood pile from the centerline of a standard-gage track shall be maintained at not less than 81/2 feet.
Logs shall be piled in an orderly and stable manner, with no projection into walkways or roadways.
Railroad cars shall not be spotted on tracks adjacent to the locomotive cranes unless a 24-inch clearance is maintained as required in paragraph (c)(2)(i) of §1910.261.
The handling and storage of other materials shall conform to paragraphs (c)(2) (i) and (ii) of §1910.261 with respect to clearance.
Equipment and practices shall conform to American National Standards B30.2-1943 (reaffirmed 1952) and B30.2.0-1967.
Personal protective equipment for such uses as foot, head, and eye protection shall be required for workers on a job basis.
No person shall be permitted to walk beneath a suspended load, bucket, or hook.
Ladders and gangplanks with railings to boat docks shall meet the requirements of American National Standards A12.1-1967, A14.1-1968, A14.2-1956, and A14.3-1956, and shall be securely fastened in place.
The hatch tender shall be required to signal the hoisting engineer to move the load only after the men workinginthe holdare in the clear.
The air in the ship’s hold, tanks, or closed vessels shall be tested for oxygen deficiency and for both toxic and explosive gases and vapors.
Railroad flatcars for the conveyance of pulpwood loaded parallel to the length of the car shall be equipped with safety-stake pockets.
Where pulpwood is loaded crosswise on a flatcar sufficient stakes of sizes not smaller than 4 by 4 inches shall be used to prevent the load from shifting.
When it is necessary to cut stakes, those on the unloading side should be partially cut through first, and then the binder wires cut on the opposite side. Wire cutters equipped with long extension handles shall be used. No person shall be permitted along the dumping side of the car after the stakes have been cut.
When steel straps without stakes are used, the steel straps shall be cut from a safe area to prevent employees from being struck by the falling logs.
Flatcars and all other cars shall be chocked during unloading. Where equipment is not provided with hand brakes, rail clamping chocks shall be used.
A derail shall be used to prevent movement of other rail equipment into cars where persons are working.
Cutting of stakes and binder wires shall be done in accordance with paragraph (c)(4)(iii) of §1910.261.
Where binder chains and steel stakes are used, the binder chains shall be released and the stakes tripped from the opposite side of the load spillage.
Where binder chains and crane slings are used, the crane slings shall be attached and taut before the binder chains are released. The hooker shall see that the helper is clear before signaling for the movement of the load.
All cars shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
Personal protective equipment for such uses as foot, head, and eye protection shall be provided, and employees shall wear the equipment when working in the woodyard. Ear protection shall be provided when the noise level may be harmful.
All trucks and trailers shall be securely fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
Personal protective equipment shall be in accordance with paragraph (c)(6)(ii) of §1910.261.
Whenever possible, all dust, fumes, and gases incident to handling materials shall be controlled at the source, in accordance with American National Standard Z9.2-1960. Where control at the source is not possible, respirators with goggles or protective masks shall be provided, and employees shall wear them when handling alum, clay, soda, ash, lime, bleach powder, sulfur, chlorine, and similar materials, and when opening rag bales.
When handling liquid acid or alkali, workmen shall be provided with approved eye and face protection and protective clothing, in accordance with American National Standard Z87.1-1968.
When materials are being piled inside a building and upon platforms, an aisle clearance at least 3 feet greater than the widest truck in use shall be provided.
Baled paper and rags stored inside a building shall not be piled closer than 18 inches to walls, partitions, or sprinkler heads.
Piles of wet lap pulp (unless palletized) shall be stepped back one-half the width of the sheet for each 8 feet of pile height. Sheets of pulp shall be interlapped to make the pile secure. Pulp shall not be piled over pipelines to jeopardize pipes, or so as to cause overloading of floors, or to within 18 inches below sprinkler heads.
Piles of pulp shall not be undermined when being unpiled.
Floor capacities shall be clearly marked on all floors.
Where rolls are pyramided two or more high, chocks shall be installed between each roll on the floor and at every row. Where pulp and paper rolls are stored on smooth floors in processing areas, rubber chocks with wooden core shall be used.
When rolls are decked two or more high, the bottom rolls shall be chocked on each side to prevent shifting in either direction.
No person shall be allowed to ride on a powered hand truck unless it is designed by the manufacturer to be ridden on. A limit switch shall be on operating handle — 30 degrees each way from a 45-degree angle up and down.
Power trucks shall comply with American National Standard B56.1-1969. Adequate ventilation shall be provided and the trucks properly maintained, so that dangerous concentrations of carbon monoxide cannot be generated, especially in warehouses or other isolated areas of a plant.
The carton-stitching machine shall be guarded to prevent the operator from coming in contact with the stitching head.
Banders and helpers shall wear eye protection equipment in accordance with §1910.261(b)(2).
Where steel bands or wires are used in boxcars or trucks, all loaders and helpers shall wear eye protection in accordance with §1910.261(b)(2).
The construction and use of bridge or dock plates shall conform to the requirements of American National Standard B56.1-1969.
Flag signals, derails, or other protective devices shall be used to protect men during switching operations. The blue flag policy shall be invoked according to §1910.261(c)(9)(i).
Three sections in Subpart N pertain to cranes and derricks. Some of the load handling requirements in these sections are the same. There are also additional individual requirements for cranes and derricks that can be found within each section of the standard.
This section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same fundamental characteristics. These cranes are grouped because they all have trolleys and similar travel characteristics.
This section applies to crawler cranes, locomotive cranes, wheel mounted cranes of both truck and self-propelled wheel type, and any variations thereof which retain the same fundamental characteristics. This section includes only cranes of the type listed above which are basically powered by internal combustion engines or electric motors and which utilize drums and ropes.
Cranes designed for railway and automobile wreck clearances are excepted. The requirements of §1910.180 are applicable only to machines when used as lifting cranes.
This section applies to guy, stiffleg, basket, breast, gin pole, Chicago boom and A-frame derricks of the stationary type are covered in this section. These derricks are capable of handling loads at variable reaches and powered by hoists through systems of rope reeving, used to perform lifting hook work, single or multiple line bucket work, grab, grapple, and magnet work. Derricks may be permanently installed for temporary use as in construction work.
The requirements also apply to any modification of these types which retain their fundamental features, except for floating derricks.
The following requirements are applicable to both cranes and derricks:
- The crane or derrick can not be loaded beyond its rated load except for test purposes.
- The hoist chain or hoist rope must be free from kinks or twists and shall not be wrapped around the load.
- The load has to be attached to the load block hook by means of slings or other approved devices.
- Care shall be taken to make certain that the sling clears all obstacles.
- The load shall be well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches.
- Before starting to hoist the following conditions shall be noted:
- Hoist rope shall not be kinked.
- Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other.
- The hook shall be brought over the load in such a manner as to prevent swinging.
- During the hoisting care shall be taken that:
- There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.
- The load does not contact any obstructions.
- Cranes and derricks shall not be used for side pulls except when specifically authorized by a responsible person who has determined that the stability of the crane is not thereby endangered and that various parts of the crane will not be overstressed.
- While any employee is on the load or hook, there shall be no hoisting, lowering, or traveling.
- The employer shall require that the operator avoid carrying loads over people.
- The operator shall test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated load is handled. The brakes shall be tested by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes.
- The load shall not be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum.
- When two or more cranes are used to lift a load one qualified responsible person shall be in charge of the operation. He shall analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to be made.
- The employer shall ensure that the operator does not leave his position at the controls while the load is suspended.
This section contains safety requirements relating to fire protection, design, maintenance, and use of fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
Section 1910.178 does not applyto compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, nor to farm vehicles and vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling.
Only stable or safely arranged loads shall be handled. Caution shall be used when handling off-center loads which cannot be centered.
Only loads within the rated capacity of the truck shall be handled.
The long or high (including multiple-tiered) loads which may affect capacity shall be adjusted.
Trucks equipped with attachments shall be operated as partially loaded trucks when not handling a load.
A load engaging means shall be placed under the load as far as possible; the mast shall be carefully tilted backward to stabilize the load.
Extreme care shall be used when tilting the load forward or backward, particularly when high tiering. Tilting forward with load engaging means elevated shall be prohibited except to pick up a load. An elevated load shall not be tilted forward except when the load is in a deposit position over a rack or stack. When stacking or tiering, only enough backward tilt to stabilize the load shall be used.
Forklift drivers must be trained on the type of vehicle they will be operating before they are allowed to drive the vehicle independently. The training must consist of instruction (both classroom-type and practical training) in proper vehicle operation, the hazards of operating the vehicle in the workplace, and the requirements of the powered industrial truck standard. See TRAINING chapter for more information.
Refresher training must be done whenever an accident or near-miss occurs, when the operator is driving unsafely, conditions in the workplace change, or if assigned to operate a different type of vehicle.
An evaluation of driver performance must be conducted at least once every three years. Certification of the training and evaluation must be recorded to verify that the driver is competent to perform the duties safely.
Many states have their own safety and health and general labor posting requirements. The following lists many of the employee informational postings that individual state employers are required to display in areas where employees congregate or where company notices are normally posted.
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