Cranes and Derricks | Materials Handling

Three sections in Subpart N pertain to cranes and derricks. Some of the load handling requirements in these sections are the same. There are also additional individual requirements for cranes and derricks that can be found within each section of the standard.

Overhead and Gantry Cranes §1910.179

This section applies to overhead and gantry cranes, including semigantry, cantilever gantry, wall cranes, storage bridge cranes, and others having the same fundamental characteristics. These cranes are grouped because they all have trolleys and similar travel characteristics.

Crawler, Locomotive, and Truck Cranes §1910.180

This section applies to crawler cranes, locomotive cranes, wheel mounted cranes of both truck and self-propelled wheel type, and any variations thereof which retain the same fundamental characteristics. This section includes only cranes of the type listed above which are basically powered by internal combustion engines or electric motors and which utilize drums and ropes.
Cranes designed for railway and automobile wreck clearances are excepted. The requirements of §1910.180 are applicable only to machines when used as lifting cranes.

Derricks §1910.181

This section applies to guy, stiffleg, basket, breast, gin pole, Chicago boom and A-frame derricks of the stationary type are covered in this section. These derricks are capable of handling loads at variable reaches and powered by hoists through systems of rope reeving, used to perform lifting hook work, single or multiple line bucket work, grab, grapple, and magnet work. Derricks may be permanently installed for temporary use as in construction work.
The requirements also apply to any modification of these types which retain their fundamental features, except for floating derricks.
The following requirements are applicable to both cranes and derricks:
  • The crane or derrick can not be loaded beyond its rated load except for test purposes.
  • The hoist chain or hoist rope must be free from kinks or twists and shall not be wrapped around the load.
  • The load has to be attached to the load block hook by means of slings or other approved devices.
  • Care shall be taken to make certain that the sling clears all obstacles.
  • The load shall be well secured and properly balanced in the sling or lifting device before it is lifted more than a few inches.
  • Before starting to hoist the following conditions shall be noted:
    • Hoist rope shall not be kinked.
    • Multiple part lines shall not be twisted around each other.
    • The hook shall be brought over the load in such a manner as to prevent swinging.
  • During the hoisting care shall be taken that:
    • There is no sudden acceleration or deceleration of the moving load.
    • The load does not contact any obstructions.
  • Cranes and derricks shall not be used for side pulls except when specifically authorized by a responsible person who has determined that the stability of the crane is not thereby endangered and that various parts of the crane will not be overstressed.
  • While any employee is on the load or hook, there shall be no hoisting, lowering, or traveling.
  • The employer shall require that the operator avoid carrying loads over people.
  • The operator shall test the brakes each time a load approaching the rated load is handled. The brakes shall be tested by raising the load a few inches and applying the brakes.
  • The load shall not be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on the hoisting drum.
  • When two or more cranes are used to lift a load one qualified responsible person shall be in charge of the operation. He shall analyze the operation and instruct all personnel involved in the proper positioning, rigging of the load, and the movements to be made.
  • The employer shall ensure that the operator does not leave his position at the controls while the load is suspended.

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