- When the tie down is released by a remote control device, and
- When the employee making the release is protected by racks, stanchions, or similar devices.
Transport vehicles must be positioned to provide working clearance between the vehicle and the deck. Only the machine operator and other essential personnel can be in the loading or unloading work area during this operation.
No transport vehicle operator can remain in the cab during the loading/unloading operations when logs are carried or moved over the truck cab, unless the employer can demonstrate that it is necessary. If the operator remains in the truck cab, the cab must be reinforced or some other means of protection must be provided.
Each log must be placed on the transport vehicle in an orderly manner and tightly secured. The load must be positioned to prevent slippage or loss during handling and transport.
Each stake and chock which is used to trip loads must be constructed so that the tripping mechanism is activated on the side opposite the load release.
Tie downs must be left in place over the peak log to secure all logs until the unloading lines or other equivalent protection has been put in place. A stake of sufficient strength to withstand the forces of shifting or moving logs would be considered equivalent protection provided that the logs are not loaded higher than the stake.
Each tie down can be released only from the side on which the unloading machine operates, except:
The transport vehicle operator must assure that each tie down is tight before transporting the load. While enroute, the operator must check and tighten the tie downs whenever there is reason to believe that the the tie downs have loosened or the load has shifted.
In stacking units of lumber, pile foundations shall be designed and arranged to support maximum loads without sinking, sagging, or permitting the piles to topple. In unit package piles, substantial bolsters or unit separators shall be placed between each package directly over the stickers.
Long units of lumber shall not be stacked upon shorter packages except where a stable pile can be made with the use of package separators.
Piles of lumber which have become unstable shall be immediately made safe, or the area into which they might fall shall be fenced or barricaded and employees prohibited from entering it.
Unit packages of lumber shall be provided with stickers as necessary to insure stability under ordinary operating conditions.
Stickers shall extend the full width of the package, shall be uniformly spaced, and shall be aligned one above the other. Stickers may be lapped with a minimum overlapping of 12 inches. Stickers shall not protrude more than 2 inches beyond the sides of the package.
The height of unit package piles shall be dependent on the dimensions of the packages and provide stability under normal operating conditions. Adjacent lumber piles may be tied together with separators to increase stability.
Log dumps, booms, ponds, or storage areas used at night shall be illuminated in accordance with the requirements of American National Standard A11.1-1965 (R-1970) Standard Practice for Industrial Lighting.
Log unloading areas shall be arranged and maintained to provide a safe working area.
Where skids are used, space adequate to clear a worker's body shall be maintained between the top of the skids and the ground.
Signs prohibiting unauthorized foot or vehicle traffic in log unloading and storage areas shall be posted.
Containers, and first stage regulating equipment, if used, shall be located outside of buildings, except under one or more of the following:
- In buildings used exclusively for container charging, vaporization pressure reduction, gas mixing, gas manufacturing, or distribution.
- When portable use is necessary and in accordance with §1910.110(c)(5).
- LP-Gas fueled stationary or portable engines in accordance with §1910.110(e)(1) or (12).
- LP-Gas fueled industrial trucks used in accordance with §1910.110(e)(13).
- LP-Gas fueled vehicles garaged in accordance with §1910.110(e)(14).
- Containers awaiting use or resale when stored in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section.
Individual containers shall be located with respect to the nearest important building or group of buildings in accordance with Table 1.
Water capacity per container
Between above ground containers
Less than 125 gals[a]
125 to 250 gals
251 to 500 gals
501 to 2,000 gals
2,001 to 30,000 gals
30,001 to 70,000 gals
70,001 to 90,000 gals
[a]If the aggregate water capacity of a multi-container installation at a consumer site is 501 gallons or greater, the minimum distance shall comply with the appropriate portion of this table, applying the aggregate capacity rather than the capacity per container. If more than one installation is made, each installation shall be separated from another installation by at least 25 feet. Do not apply the MINIMUM DISTANCES BETWEEN ABOVE-GROUND CONTAINERS to such installations.
Containers installed for use shall not be stacked one above the other.
In the case of buildings devoted exclusively to gas manufacturing and distributing operations, the distances required by Table 1 may be reduced provided that in no case shall containers of water capacity exceeding 500 gallons be located closer than 10 feet to such gas manufacturing and distributing buildings.
Readily ignitible material such as weeds and long dry grass shall be removed within 10 feet of any container.
The minimum separation between liquefied petroleum gas containers and flammable liquid tanks shall be 20 feet, and the minimum separation between a container and the centerline of the dike shall be 10 feet. This provision shall not apply when LP-Gas containers of 125 gallons or less capacity are installed adjacent to Class III flammable liquid tanks of 275 gallons or less capacity.
Suitable means shall be taken to prevent the accumulation of flammable liquids under adjacent liquified petroleum gas containers, such as by diking, diversion curbs, or grading.
When dikes are used with flammable liquid tanks, no liquified petroleum gas containers shall be located within the diked area.
Section 1910.110(f) applies to the storage of portable containers not in excess of 1,000 pounds water capacity, filled or partially filled, at user location but not connected for use, or in storage for resale by dealers or resellers.
Section 1910.110(f) does not apply to containers stored at charging plants or at plants devoted primarily to the storage and distribution of LP-Gas or other petroleum products.
Containers in storage shall be located so as to minimize exposure to excessive temperature rise, physical damage, or tampering by unauthorized persons.
Containers when stored inside shall not be located near exits, stairways, or in areas normally used or intended for the safe exit of people.
Container valves shall be protected while in storage as follows:
- By setting into recess of container to prevent the possibility of their being struck if the container is dropped upon a flat surface, or
- By ventilated cap or collar, fastened to container capable of withstanding a blow from any direction equivalent to that of a 30-pound weight dropped 4 feet. Construction must be such that a blow will not be transmitted to a valve or other connection.
- The outlet valves of containers in storage shall be closed.
- Empty containers which have been in LP-Gas service when stored inside, shall be considered as full containers for the purpose of determining the maximum quantity of LP-Gas permitted by §1910.110(f).
The quantity of LP-Gas stored shall not exceed 300 pounds (approximately 2,550 cubic feet in vapor form) except as provided in §1910.110(f)(5).
Containers carried as a part of service equipment on highway mobile vehicles are not to be considered in the total storage capacity in §1910.110(f)(4)(i) provided such vehicles are stored in private garages, and are limited to one container per vehicle with an LP-Gas capacity of not more than 100 pounds. All container valves shall be closed.
The quantity of LP-Gas stored in special buildings or rooms shall not exceed 10,000 pounds.
The walls, floors, and ceilings of container storage rooms that are within or adjacent to other parts of the building shall be constructed of material having at least a 2-hour fire resistance rating.
A portion of the exterior walls or roof having an area not less than 10 percent of that of the combined area of the enclosing walls and roof shall be of explosion relieving construction.
Each opening from such storage rooms to other parts of the building shall be protected by a 1½ hour (B) fire door listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to §1910.7 for definition of nationally recognized testing laboratory.
Such rooms shall be adequately ventilated both top and bottom to the outside only. The openings from such vents shall be at least 5 feet away from any other opening into any building.
The floors of such rooms shall not be below ground level. Any space below the floor shall be of solid fill or properly ventilated to the open air.
Such storage rooms shall not be located adjoining the line of property occupied by schools, churches, hospitals, athletic fields or other points of public gathering.
Fixed electrical equipment shall be installed in accordance with §1910.110(b)(18).
Storage outside of buildings, for containers awaiting use or resale, shall be located in accordance with Table 2 with respect to:
- The nearest important building or group of buildings
- Busy thoroughfares
Quantity of LP-Gas Stored
500 pounds or less
501 to 2,500 pounds
2,501 to 6,000 pounds
6,001 to 10,000 pounds
Over 10,000 pounds
[a]Container or containers shall be at least 10 feet from any building on adjoining property, any sidewalk, or any of the exposures described in §1910.110(f)(6)(i) (c) or (d) of this paragraph.
Containers shall be in a suitable enclosure or otherwise protected against tampering.
Except for the storage of ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures that are more sensitive than allowed by the "Definition of Test Procedures for Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer," §1910.109(i) applies to the storage of ammonium nitrate in the form of crystals, flakes, grains, or prills including fertilizer grade, dynamite grade, nitrous oxide grade, technical grade, and other mixtures containing 60 percent or more ammonium nitrate by weight but does not apply to blasting agents.
Section 1910.109(i) does not apply to the transportation of ammonium nitrate.
Section 1910.109(i) does not apply to storage under the jurisdiction of and in compliance with the regulations of the U.S. Coast Guard (see 46 CFR Parts 146–149).
The storage of ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures that are more sensitive than allowed by the "Definition of Test Procedures for Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizer" is prohibited.
The standards for ammonium nitrate (nitrous oxide grade) are those found in the "Specifictions, Properties, and Recommendations for Packaging, Transportation, Storage, and Use of Ammonium Nitrate," available from the Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10036.
Section 1910.109(i) applies to all persons storing, having, or keeping ammonium nitrate, and to the owner or lessee of any building, premises, or structure in which ammonium nitrate is stored in quantities of 1,000 pounds or more. Approval of large quantity storage shall be subject to due consideration of the fire and explosion hazards, including exposure to toxic vapors from burning or decomposing ammonium nitrate.
Storage buildings shall not have basements unless the basements are open on at least one side. Storage buildings shall not be over one story in height.
Storage buildings shall have adequate ventilation or be of a construction that will be self-ventilating in the event of a fire.
The wall on the exposed side of a storage building within 50 feet of a combustible building, forest, piles of combustible materials and similar exposure hazards shall be of fire-resistive construction. In lieu of the fire-resistive wall, other suitable means of exposure protection such as a free standing wall may be used. The roof coverings shall be Class C or better, as defined in the Manual on Roof Coverings, NFPA 203M-1970.
All flooring in storage and handling areas, shall be of non combustible material or protected against impregnation by ammonium nitrate and shall be without open drains, traps, tunnels, pits, or pockets into which any molten ammonium nitrate could flow and be confined in the event of fire.
The continued use of an existing storage building or structure not in strict conformity with §1910.109(i) may be approved in cases where such continued use will not constitute a hazard to life.
Buildings and structures shall be dry and free from water seepage through the roof, walls, and floors.
Bags and containers used for ammonium nitrate must comply with specifications and standards required for use in interstate commerce
Containers used on the premises in the actual manufacturing or processing need not comply with provisions of §1910.109(i)(3)(i)(a).
Containers of ammonium nitrate shall not be accepted for storage when the temperature of the ammonium nitrate exceeds 130 °F.
Bags of ammonium nitrate shall not be stored within 30 inches of the storage building walls and partitions.
The height of piles shall not exceed 20 feet. The width of piles shall not exceed 20 feet and the length 50 feet; except that where the building is of noncombustible construction or is protected by automatic sprinklers, the length of piles shall not be limited. In no case shall the ammonium nitrate be stacked closer than 36 inches below the roof or supporting and spreader beams overhead.
Aisles shall be provided to separate piles by a clear space of not less than 3 feet in width. At least one service or main aisle in the storage area shall be not less than 4 feet in width.
Storage Within Magazines
- Packages of explosives shall be laid flat with topside up.
- Black powder when stored in magazines with other explosives shall be stored separately.
- Black powder stored in kegs shall be stored on ends, bungs down, or on side, seams down.
- Corresponding grades and brands shall be stored together in such a manner that brands and grade marks show.
- All stocks shall be stored so as to be easily counted and checked. Packages of explosives shall be piled in a stable manner.
- When any kind of explosive is removed from a magazine for use, the oldest explosive of that particular kind shall always be taken first.
- Packages of explosives shall not be unpacked or repacked in a magazine nor within 50 feet of a magazine or in close proximity to other explosives.
- Tools used for opening packages of explosives shall be constructed of nonsparking materials, except that metal slitters may be used for opening fiberboard boxes.
- A wood wedge and a fiber, rubber, or wood mallet shall be used for opening or closing wood packages of explosives.
- Opened packages of explosives shall be securely closed before being returned to a magazine.
Magazines shall not be used for the storage of any metal tools nor any commodity except explosives, but this restriction shall not apply to the storage of blasting agents and blasting supplies.
- Magazine floors shall be regularly swept, kept clean, dry, free of grit, paper, empty used packages, and rubbish.
- Brooms and other cleaning utensils shall not have any spark-producing metal parts.
- Sweepings from floors of magazines shall be properly disposed of.
- Magazine floors stained with nitroglycerin shall be cleaned according to instructions by the manufacturer.
When any explosive has deteriorated to an extent that it is in an unstable or dangerous condition, or if nitroglycerin leaks from any explosives, then the person in possession of such explosive shall immediately proceed to destroy such explosive in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturer. Only experienced persons shall be allowed to do the work of destroying explosives.
When magazines need inside repairs, all explosives shall be removed, and the floors cleaned.
In making outside repairs, if there is a possibility of causing sparks or fire, the explosives shall be removed from the magazine.
Explosives removed from a magazine under repair shall either be placed in another magazine or placed a safe distance from the magazine where they shall be properly guarded and protected until repairs have been completed, when they shall be returned to the magazine.
Smoking, matches, open flames, spark-producing devices, and firearms (except firearms carried by guards) shall not be permitted inside of or within 50 feet of magazines. The land surrounding a magazine shall be kept clear of all combustible materials for a distance of at least 25 feet. Combustible materials shall not be stored within 50 feet of magazines.
Magazines shall be in the charge of a competent person at all times. This person shall be held responsible for the enforcement of all safety precautions.
Explosives recovered from blasting misfires shall be placed in a separate magazine until competent personnel has determined from the manufacturer the method of disposal. Caps recovered from blasting misfires shall not be reused. Such explosives and caps shall then be disposed of in the manner recommended by the manufacturer.
Section 1910.109(c) does not apply to:
- Stocks of small arms ammunition, propellant-actuated power cartridges, small arms ammunition primers in quantities of less than 750,000, or of smokeless propellants in quantities less than 750 pounds;
- Explosive-actuated power devices when in quantities less than 50 pounds net weight of explosives;
- Fuse lighters and fuse igniters;
- Safety fuses other than cordeau detonant fuses.
No person shall store, handle, or transport explosives or blasting agents when such storage, handling, and transportation of explosives or blasting agents constitutes an undue hazard to life.
All Class A, Class B, Class C explosives, and special industrial expolosives, and any newly developed and unclassified explosives, shall be kept in magazines which meet the requirements of §1910.109(c)(2) – (4).
Blasting caps, electric blasting caps, detonating primers, and primed cartidges shall not be stored in the same magazine with other explosives.
Ground around magazines shall slope away for drainage. The land surrounding magazines shall be kept clear of brush, dried grass, leaves, and other materials for a distance of at least 25 feet.
Magazines as required by paragraph (c) shall be of two classes: Class I magazines, and Class II magazines.
Class I magazines shall be required where the quantity of explosives stored is more than 50 pounds. Class II magazines may be used where the quantity of explosives stored is 50 pounds or less.
Class I magazines shall be located away from inhabited buildings, passenger railways, and public highways and from other magazines in conformity with Table 1.
Distances in feet when storage is barricaded: Separation of magazines
Pounds not over
[a]"Natural barricade" means natural features of the ground, such as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures which require protection cannot be seen from the magazine when the trees are bare of leaves.
[b]"Artificial arricade" means an artificial mound or revetted wall of earth of a minimum thickness of three feet.
[c]"Barricaded" means that a building containing explosives is effectually screened from a magazine, building, railway, or highway, either by a natural barricade, or by an artificial barricade of such height that a straight line from the top of any side-wall of the building containing explosives to the eave line of any magazine, or building, or to a point 12 feet above the center of a railway or highway, will pass through such intervening natural or artificial barricade.
[d]When two or more storage magazines are located on the same property, each magazine must comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings, railways, and highways, and in addition, they should be separated from each other by not less than the distances shown for "Separation of Magazines," except that the quantity of explosives contained in cap magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said cap magazines from magazines containing other explosives. If any two or more magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified "Separation of Magazines" distances, then such two or more magazines, as a group, must be considered as one magazine, and the total quantity of explosives stored in such group must be treated as if stored in a single magazine located on the site of any magazine of the group, and must comply with the minimum of distances specified from other magazines, inhabited buildings, railways, and highways.
[e]This table applies only to the manufacture and permanent storage of commercial explosives. It is not applicable to transportation of explosives, or any handling or temporary storage necessary or incident thereto. It is not intended to apply to bombs, projectiles, or other heavily encased explosives.
Except as in §1910.109(c)(1)(viii), Class II magazines shall be located in conformity with Table 1, but may be permitted in warehouses and in wholesale and retail establishments when located on a floor which has an entrance at outside grade level and the magazine is located not more than 10 feet from such an entrance.
Two Class II magazines may be located in the same building when one is used only for blasting caps in quantities not in excess of 5,000 caps and a distance of 10 feet is maintained between magazines.
When used for temporary storage at a site for blasting operations, Class II magazines shall be located away from other magazines. A distance of at least one hundred and fifty (150) feet shall be maintained between Class II magazines and the work in progress when the quantity of explosives kept therein is in excess of 25 pounds, and at least 50 feet when the quantity of explosives is 25 pounds, or less.
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