(ii) Gas masks capable of absorbing chlorine shall be supplied, conveniently placed, and regularly inspected, and workers who may be exposed to chlorine gas shall be instructed in their use.
(iii) Gas masks must be provided for emergency use in accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134.
(iv) For emergency and rescue operations, the employer must provide employees with self-contained breathing apparatuses or supplied-air respirators, and ensure that employees use these respirators, in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.134.
(v) Instruction of employees. Employees shall be properly instructed as to the hazards of their work and be instructed in safe practices, by bulletins, printed rules, and verbal instructions.
(x) Lift trucks. Lift trucks shall be designed, constructed, maintained, and operated in accordance with the requirements of §1910.178. [Only trained and authorized operators shall be permitted to operate a powered industrial truck. Methods shall be devised to train operators in the safe operation of powered industrial trucks.]
Designated person. An employee who has the requisite knowledge, training and experience to perform specific duties.
Logging operations. Operations associated with felling and moving trees and logs from the stump to the point of delivery, such as, but not limited to, marking danger trees and trees/logs to be cut to length, felling, limbing, bucking, debarking, chipping, yarding, loading, unloading, storing, and transporting machines, equipment and personnel to, from and between logging sites.
(7) Signaling and signal equipment. (iii) Only a designated person shall give signals, except in an emergency.
(10) Explosives and blasting agents. (ii) Only a designated person shall handle or use explosives and blasting agents.
(iv) The chain saw shall be fueled at least 10 feet (3 m) from any open flame or other source of ignition.
(v) The chain saw shall be started at least 10 feet (3 m) from the fueling area.
(vi) The chain saw shall be started on the ground or where otherwise firmly supported. Drop starting a chain saw is prohibited.
(vii) The chain saw shall be started with the chain brake engaged.
(viii) The chain saw shall be held with the thumbs and fingers of both hands encircling the handles during operation unless the employer demonstrates that a greater hazard is posed by keeping both hands on the chain saw in that particular situation.
(ix) The chain-saw operator shall be certain of footing before starting to cut. The chain saw shall not be used in a position or at a distance that could cause the operator to become off-balance, to have insecure footing, or to relinquish a firm grip on the saw.
(x) Prior to felling any tree, the chain-saw operator shall clear away brush or other potential obstacles which might interfere with cutting the tree or using the retreat path.
(xi) The chain saw shall not be used to cut directly overhead.
(xii) The chain saw shall be carried in a manner that will prevent operator contact with the cutting chain and muffler.
(xiii) The chain saw shall be shut off or the throttle released before the feller starts his retreat.
(xiv) The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged whenever a saw is carried further than 50 feet (15.2 m). The chain saw shall be shut down or the chain brake shall be engaged when a saw is carried less than 50 feet if conditions such as, but not limited to, the terrain, underbrush and slippery surfaces, may create a hazard for an employee.
(1) General requirements. (iii) The employer shall assure that operating and maintenance instructions are available on the machine or in the area where the machine is being operated. Each machine operator and maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.
(2) Machine operation. (i) The machine shall be started and operated only by a designated person.
(g) Vehicles. (3) The employer shall assure that operating and maintenance instructions are available in each vehicle. Each vehicle operator and maintenance employee shall comply with the operating and maintenance instructions.
(4) The employer shall assure that each vehicle operator has a valid operator's license for the class of vehicle being operated.
(i) Training. (1) The employer shall provide training for each employee, including supervisors, at no cost to the employee.
(2) Frequency. Training shall be provided as follows:
(i) As soon as possible but not later than the effective date of this section for initial training for each current and new employee;
(ii) Prior to initial assignment for each new employee;
(iv) Whenever an employee demonstrates unsafe job performance.
(3) Content. At a minimum, training shall consist of the following elements:
(i) Safe performance of assigned work tasks;
(ii) Safe use, operation and maintenance of tools, machines and vehicles the employee uses or operates, including emphasis on understanding and following the manufacturer's operating and maintenance instructions, warnings and precautions;
(iii) Recognition of safety and health hazards associated with the employee's specific work tasks, including the use of measures and work practices to prevent or control those hazards;
(iv) Recognition, prevention and control of other safety and health hazards in the logging industry;
(v) Procedures, practices and requirements of the employer's work site; and
(vi) The requirements of this standard.
(4) Training of an employee due to unsafe job performance, or assignment of new work tasks, tools, equipment, machines, or vehicles may be limited to those elements in paragraph (i)(3) of this section which are relevant to the circumstances giving rise to the need for training.
(5) Portability of training. (i) Each current employee who has received training in the particular elements specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained in those elements.
(ii) Each new employee who has received training in the particular elements specified in paragraph (i)(3) of this section shall not be required to be retrained in those elements prior to initial assignment.
(iii) The employer shall train each current and new employee in those elements for which the employee has not received training.
(iv) The employer is responsible for ensuring that each current and new employee can properly and safely perform the work tasks and operate the tools, equipment, machines, and vehicles used in their job.
(6) Each new employee and each employee who is required to be trained as specified in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, shall work under the close supervision of a designated person until the employee demonstrates to the employer the ability to safely perform their new duties independently.
(7) First-aid training. (i) The employer shall assure that each employee, including supervisors, receives or has received first-aid and CPR training meeting at least the requirements specified in Appendix B.
(ii) The employer shall assure that each employee's first-aid and CPR training and/or certificate of training remain current.
(8) All training shall be conducted by a designated person.
(9) The employer shall assure that all training required by this section is presented in a manner that the employee is able to understand. The employer shall assure that all training materials used are appropriate in content and vocabulary to the educational level, literacy, and language skills of the employees being trained.
(10) Certification of training. (i) The employer shall verify compliance with paragraph (i) of this section by preparing a written certification record. The written certification record shall contain the name or other identity of the employee trained, the date(s) of the training, and the signature of the person who conducted the training or the signature of the employer. If the employer relies on training conducted prior to the employee's hiring or completed prior to the effective date of this section, the certification record shall indicate the date the employer determined the prior training was adequate.
(11) Safety and health meetings. The employer shall hold safety and health meetings as necessary and at least each month for each employee. Safety and health meetings may be conducted individually, in crew meetings, in larger groups, or as part of other staff meetings.
The following is deemed to be the minimal acceptable first-aid and CPR training program for employees engaged in logging activities.
First-aid and CPR training shall be conducted using the conventional methods of training such as lecture, demonstration, practical exercise and examination (both written and practical). The length of training must be sufficient to assure that trainees understand the concepts of first aid and can demonstrate their ability to perform the various procedures contained in the outline below.
At a minimum, first-aid and CPR training shall consist of the following:
The definition of first-aid.
Legal issues of applying first-aid (Good Samaritan Laws).
Patient assessment and first-aid for the following:
Loss of consciousness.
Extreme temperature exposure (hypothermia/hyperthermia)
Loss of mental functioning (psychosis/hallucinations, etc.). Artificial ventilation.
Application of dressings and slings.
Treatment of strains, sprains, and fractures.
Immobilization of injured persons.
Handling and transporting injured persons.
Treatment of bites, stings, or contact with poisonous plants or animals.
(i) Employees assigned to work with storage batteries shall be instructed in emergency procedures such as dealing with accidential acid spills.
(c) Training. Employers shall provide training in the various precautions and safe practices described in this section and shall insure that employees do not engage in the activities to which §1910.268 applies until such employees have received proper training in the various precautions and safe practices required by §1910.268. However, where the employer can demonstrate that an employee is already trained in the precautions and safe practices required by §1910.268 prior to his employment, training need not be provided to that employee in accordance with §1910.268. Where training is required, it shall consist of on-the-job training or classroom-type training or a combination of both. The training program shall include a list of the subject courses and the types of personnel required to receive such instruction. A written description of the training program and a record of employees who have received such training shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment and shall be made available upon request to the Assistant Secretary for Occupational Safety and Health. Such training shall, where appropriate, include the following subjects:
(1) Recognition and avoidance of dangers relating to encounters with harmful substances, and animal, insect, or plant life.
(2) Procedures to be followed in emergency situations, and
(3) First aid training, including instruction in artificial respiration.
(ii) The employers shall ensure that pole climbers are inspected by a competent person for the following conditions: Fractured or cracked gaffs or leg irons, loose or dull gaffs, broken straps or buckles. If any of these conditions exist, the defect shall be corrected before the climbers are used.
(iii) Pole climbers shall be inspected as required in §1910.268(g)(3) before each day's use and a gaff cut-out test performed at least weekly when in use.
(1) The employer shall ensure that no employee nor any material or equipment may be supported or permitted to be supported on any portion of a ladder unless it is first determined, by inspections and checks conducted by a competent person, that such ladder is adequately strong, in good condition, and properly secured in place, as required in Subpart D of Part 1910 and as required in §1910.268.
(i) The employer shall ensure that visual inspections are made of the equipment by a competent person each day the equipment is to be used to ascertain that it is in good condition.
(ii) The employer shall ensure that tests shall be made at the beginning of each shift by a competent person to insure the vehicle brakes and operating systems are in proper working condition.
(F) The employer shall ensure that the derrick and its associated equipment are inspected by a competent person at intervals set by the manufacturer but in no case less than once per year. Records shall be maintained including the dates of inspections, and necessary repairs made, if corrective action was required.
(1) Employees involved in using high voltages to locate trouble or test cables shall be instructed in the precautions necessary for their own safety, and the safety of other employees.
(ii) While work is being performed in the manhole, a person with basic first aid training shall be immediately available to render assistance if there is cause for believing that a safety hazard exists, and if the requirements contained in paragraphs (d)(1) and (o)(1)(i) of §1910.268 do not adequately protect the employee(s)…
(3) Joint power and telecommunication manholes. While work is being performed in a manhole occupied jointly by an electric utility and a telecommunication utility, an employee with basic first aid training shall be available in the immediate vicinity to render emergency assistance as may be required. The employee who presence is required in the immediate vicinity for the purposes of rendering emergency assistance is not to be precluded from occasionally entering a manhole to provide assistance other than in an emergency. The requirement of §1910.268(o)(3) does not preclude a qualified employee [any worker who by reason of his training and experience has demonstrated his ability to safely perform his duties], working alone, from entering for brief periods of time, a manhole where energized cables or equipment are in service, for the purpose of inspection, housekeeping, taking readings, or similar work if such work can be performed safely.
(ii) Employees engaged in line-clearing operations shall be instructed that:
(A) A direct contact is made when any part of the body touches or contacts an energized conductor, or other energized electrical fixture or apparatus.
(B) An indirect contact is made when any part of the body touches any object in contact with an energized electrical conductor, or other energized fixture or apparatus.
(C) An indirect contact can be made through conductive tools, tree branches, trucks, equipment, or other objects, or as a result of communications wires, cables, fences, or guy wires being accidentally energized.
(D) Electric shock will occur when an employee, by either direct or indirect contact with an energized conductor, energized tree limb, tools, equipment, or other object, provides a path for the flow of electricity to a grounded object or to the ground itself. Simultaneous contact with two energized conductors will also cause electric shock which may result in serious or fatal injury.
(ii) Only qualified employees [any worker who by reason of his training and experience has demonstrated his ability to safely perform his duties] or trainees, familiar with the special techniques and hazards involved in line clearance, shall be permitted to perform the work if it is found that an electrical hazard exists.
(iii) During all tree working operations aloft where an electrical hazard of more than 750V exists, there shall be a second employee [a tree worker who through related training and on-the-job experience is familiar
with the special techniques and hazards involved in line clearance] or trainee qualified in line clearance trimming [any worker regularly assigned to a line-clearance tree-trimming crew and undergoing on-the-job training who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated his ability to perform his duties safely at his level of training] within normal voice communication.
(iv) Where tree work is performed by employees qualified in line-clearance tree trimming and trainees qualified in line-clearance tree trimming, the clearances from energized conductors given in Table R-3 shall apply.
(2) Training. (i) Employees shall be trained in and familiar with the safety-related work practices, safety procedures, and other safety requirements in this section that pertain to their respective job assignments. Employees shall also be trained in and familiar with any other safety practices, including applicable emergency procedures (such as pole top and manhole rescue), that are not specifically addressed by this section but that are related to their work and are necessary for their safety.
(ii) Qualified employees shall also be trained and competent in:
(A) The skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment.
(B) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts.
(C) The minimum approach distances specified in this section corresponding to the voltages to which the qualified employee will be exposed, and
(D) The proper use of the special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and shielding materials, and insulated tools for working on or near exposed energized parts of electric equipment.
For the purposes of this section, a person must have this training in order to be considered a qualified person.
(iii) The employer shall determine, through regular supervision and through inspections conducted on at least an annual basis, that each employee is complying with the safety-related work practices required by this section.
(iv) An employee shall receive additional training (or retraining) under any of the following conditions:
(A) If the supervision and annual inspections required by paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section indicate that the employee is not complying with the safety-related work practices required by this section, or
(B) If new technology, new types of equipment, or changes in procedures necessitate the use of safety-related work practices that are different from those which the employee would normally use, or
(C) If he or she must employ safety-related work practices that are not normally used during his or her regular job duties.
OSHA would consider tasks that are performed less often than once per year to necessitate retraining before the performance of the work practices involved.
(vi) The training shall establish employee proficiency in the work practices required by this section and shall introduce the procedures necessary for compliance with this section.
(vii) The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the employee's employment.
Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.
(e) Training. (1) The employer shall provide training to employees at least annually and when changes in job assignment will expose them to new hazards. Current employees, and new employees prior to starting work, shall be trained in at least the following:
(i) General safety precautions associated with the facility, including recognition and preventive measures for the hazards related to dust accumulations and common ignition sources such as smoking; and,
(ii) Specific procedures and safety practices applicable to their job tasks including but not limited to, cleaning procedures for grinding equipment, clearing procedures for choked legs, housekeeping procedures, hot work procedures, preventive maintenance procedures and lock-out/tag-out procedures.
(2) Employees assigned special tasks, such as bin entry and handling of flammable or toxic substances, shall be provided training to perform these tasks safely.
|Note to Paragraph (e)(2):|| |
Training for an employee who enters grain storage structures includes training about engulfment and mechanical hazards and how to avoid them.
(g) Entry into grain storage structures. (5) The employee acting as observer shall be trained in rescue procedures, including notification methods for obtaining additional assistance.